Diplomatic relations were established on March 6, 1970. The Russian Embassy was opened in Gaborone in August, 1976. Ambassador of the Republic of Botswana to the Russian Federation is accredited concurrently from Stockholm, Sweden. Russia-Botswana relations are traditionally friendly. Positions of both countries on main international and regional issues are close or coincide.
The 40th Anniversary of the establishment of the diplomatic relations was commemorated by exchange of congratulatory messages by Ministers of Foreign Affairs of two countries.
Within cooperation in the area of legislature exchanges of visits at the level of the Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and the Speaker of the National Assembly of the Republic of Botswana were held in 2001 and 2005. The latest visit to Gaborone was held by the Russian State Duma in June, 2010.
On December 17, 2002 the Protocol on political consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of the Republic of Botswana was signed. The latest rounds of political consultations took place in November, 2012 in Gaborone and July, 2013 in Moscow.
Trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Botswana is based on the Trade Agreement of 1987 and the Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation of 1988. The Convention between the Government of the Republic of Botswana and the Government of the Russian Federation for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income was signed on April 8, 2003.
In 2010-2011 negotiations between the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Botswana Export Development and Investment Authority (BEDIA) were held. In December, 2011 the delegation of BEDIA took part in the business forum “Russia-Affrica” in Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. In July, 2013 the Botswana delegation attended the Russia-Africa Economic Forum “Ural-Africa” in Ekaterinburg.
The Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Botswana signed the Agreement on Cultural, Scientific and Educational Cooperation in September, 1999. The Russian Government annually provides scholarships for studying in Russian higher educational institutions.
In the framework of Russian participation in the implementation of the Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Care, launched at the Summit of G8 in June, 2010, Botswana medical practitioners are invited for participation in educational workshops in the areas of obstetrics and neonatology, arranged in the specialized medical centres of Moscow and Saint-Petersburg.
The Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Botswana on Visa-Free Travels on Diplomatic and Service Passports was signed on February 10, 2005
In compliance with the Statutory Instrument No. 88 of 2006 of the Republic of Botswana citizens of the Russian Federation enjoy visa-free entry to Botswana.